12 月 23 日晚 8 点，XELS 项目 Founder & CEO Takeshi Nojima 和 Project Manager Mitchell Hammer 做客 499DATA& 大月阁社群，由链一资本 VP 月月主持，进行了主题为“区块链不只有金融 看 XELS 如何用区块链促进环保”的 AMA 分享。
AMA 过程中，Mitchell Hammer 表示：XELS 致力于利用区块链技术应对气候变化的宏伟任务，是一个基于区块链的碳信用和自然资本市场，为企业、政府和个人提供了一种透明的方式来获取、交易和核算碳足迹和抵消。它利用区块链将高质量的碳信用转化为易于交换的资产，并通过加密资产市场实现流动性。
以下为 AMA 全文
月月：What are the advantages and innovations of XELS?
Takeshi Nojima：Globally, carbon offset markets suffer from fragmented implementation, lack of cross-market exchange of value and quite often incorrect parameterization of the carbon ratio of given projects such that carbon credits granted and/or retired often do not actually reflect their true environmental effect, creating demand-supply imbalances. This has resulted in hyperinflation in carbon credits and therefore not incentivizing the correct behavior in emitters or propagating trust in carbon credit markets generally.
在全球范围内，碳补偿市场的实施分散，缺乏跨市场的价值交换，给定项目的碳比率参数化往往不正确，因此发放和 / 或收回的碳信用额往往不能实际反映其真正的环境影响，造成供需失衡。这导致了碳信用的恶性膨胀，因此没有激励排放者的正确行为，也没有在总体上对碳信用市场的信任。
Carbon credits, which put a price on carbon reductions and provide revenue for such forestry protection projects, therefore represent a clear way in which companies and inpiduals can be empowered to reduce or offset the negative or unavoidable impact of their business and choices on the environment. By placing a value on the ecosystems that support our planet, carbon credits internalize the invisible costs of everyday choices and allow a sustainable market place to emerge.
However, since its inception, carbon trading has suffered from some issues that have suppressed its potential. The market is beset by a lack of visibility, which prevents people from trusting the carbon credit as an asset. Differing standards and regulations in different jurisdictions and the potential for double counting (where the same credit is sold more than once) have resulted in a lack of confidence from potential market participants. And without a universal ledger it isn’t easy to track how much carbon you’ve used or – if you offset it – what the impact of your reduction has been on a tangible level. As an inpidual, it is hard to incorporate carbon credits into your daily life.
然而，从一开始，碳交易就受到一些抑制其潜力的问题的困扰。市场被缺乏透明度所困扰，这使得人们无法相信碳信用是一种资产。不同司法管辖区的不同标准和法规以及重复计算的可能性 (同一笔信贷被出售多次) 导致潜在市场参与者缺乏信心。如果没有一个通用的分类账，很难跟踪你已经使用了多少碳，或者——如果你抵消了——你的减排在有形层面上产生了什么影响。作为个人，很难将碳信用纳入日常生活。
Yet even if every country satisfied their Paris commitments to reduce carbon emissions, this would still not be sufficient to create a safe climate. Inpiduals and businesses will need to do more to plug this gap, and we urgently need to find a way to help them do this, while working on longer-term shifts in parallel.
Xels is created in collaboration with strategic partners and industry leaders. Xels is a blockchain-based carbon credit and natural capital marketplace that provides a transparent way for corporations, governments and inpiduals to acquire, trade and account for carbon footprints and offsets. It utilizes the blockchain to turn high-quality carbon credits into easily exchanged assets, and enables liquidity through a crypto-asset marketplace.
XELS 是与战略合作伙伴和行业领导者合作创建的。XELS 是一个基于区块链的碳信用和自然资本市场，为企业、政府和个人提供了一种透明的方式来获取、交易和核算碳足迹和抵消。它利用区块链将高质量的碳信用转化为易于交换的资产，并通过加密资产市场实现流动性。
Our mission is to accelerate the transition from an unsustainable extractive economic model to a fully regenerative economy by embedded environmental impact costs (externalities) into the costs of all goods and services we consume. Our platform is unique in many ways. With it, we can transact small amounts of carbon credits, for the first time, allowing us to integrate the carbon market with the retail sector.
我们的使命是通过将环境影响成本 (外部性) 嵌入到我们消费的所有商品和服务的成本中，加快从不可持续的采掘型经济模式向完全可再生的经济模式的转变。
Our platform is truly end-to-end, connecting polluters and consumers around the world. Using our blockchain-based platform, carbon credits will be managed throughout their entire lifecycle. It will offer transparency, traceability, and monitoring at every step. While it will of course sit alongside the structural improvements that businesses are making to lower their emissions, it offers the critical acceleration in activity and funding for emission reduction projects, driving the changes necessary for sustainable global development。
月月：The sustainable development of climate change is a topic of great concern around the world. Why did XELS choose it and devote to it? What are the expected positive effects on the global environment?
Mitchell Hammer：Climate change is indeed one of the critical issues of our time. Business managers should care because ultimately business cannot succeed in a world that’s failing.
The recent surge of superstorms that have been battering the Caribbean and the Southern US, the fires in Western Canada, and the extreme flooding experienced in many parts of the world have helped raised awareness of the impact of warming temperatures.
During the World Economic Forum in Davos, Switzerland where Bill Clinton was talking about climate change. He argued that if we were able to decrease global carbon emissions by 80 per cent by the year 2050 it would still take 1000 years for the planet to cool down. In the meantime, he said, you can expect a lot of bad things to happen – like a billion people losing most of their water supply in the next decade.
在瑞士达沃斯举行的世界经济论坛上，比尔·克林顿谈到了气候变化。他认为，如果我们能够在 2050 年前将全球碳排放量减少 80%，地球仍需要 1000 年才能降温。与此同时，他说，你可以预计会发生很多不好的事情——比如 10 亿人在未来十年失去大部分供水。
We can all imagine the human tragedy that would result – death, migration, wars, and increased terrorism just for starters.
Clearly (to anyone who believes in science) climate change is arguably the world’s most daunting challenge. Virtually every scientist now agrees that the debate is over. Rising average surface temperatures combined with rapidly expanding deserts, melting Arctic sea ice caps and ocean acidification now provide unequivocal evidence that human activities are fundamentally altering the Earth’s climate. In fact the planet appears to be changing faster than even the pessimists expected—way faster.
For many people, those consequences seem distant, and it’s certainly true that the worst of it will be inherited by future generations. Given the short-term thinking that dominates our political systems, our economy, our capital markets, and our day-to-day decision-making as inpiduals, it is easy to be dismissive of the notion that humankind will suddenly become motivated by a sense of inter-generational justice to make the deep and difficult adjustments that are required to avert global ecological disruption.
It’s one thing for governments or corporations to take action, but more is needed – a global change in human behavior. But what will it take to cause all of us radically reduce our own carbon footprint?
So we are working on the ambitious mission to combat climate change by using blockchain technology.
XELS will engage millions of people to help fight climate change by encouraging them to making smart choices about their carbon consumption. The company plans to purchase carbon credits, or invest in carbon reduction programs, then distribute the offsets via major retailers and brands as loyalty tokens that will help incent people to make carbon-friendly decisions in their day-to-day purchases of goods and services. The tokens earned will be tradable on the our platform, or can be exchanged for goods and services, other reward program points, or other digital currencies.
月月：How can ordinary people participate in the XELS ecosystem?
普通群众如何参与到 XELS 生态中来 ?
Takeshi Nojima：Blockchain has the potential to accelerate the deployment of emissions trading systems (ETS) worldwide and improve upon the efficiency of existing systems. XELS is developing a a model for a permissioned blockchain implementation based on the successful European Union (EU) ETS as it has many potential advantages over existing technology. We are creating an ETS model that is both backwards compatible and future-proof, characterised by interconnectedness, transparency, tamper-resistance and high liquidity.
This is where blockchain technology comes in. Put simply, blockchain is the name for a digital ledger in which transactions (often made with "tokens" or a cryptocurrency such as bitcoin) are recorded chronologically and publicly. Applying this to carbon credits to create a "carbon currency" is the key to demystifying and consolidating the carbon market so it can scale up. Carbon credits are the perfect candidate for a digital currency as they are data-driven, rely on multiple approval steps and exist separately to the physical impacts to which they correlate.
这就是区块链技术的来源。简而言之，区块链是一个数字分类账的名字，其中交易 (通常用“代币”或比特币等加密货币) 按时间顺序公开记录。将此应用于碳信用来创造一种“碳货币”是揭开碳市场神秘面纱和巩固碳市场的关键，这样它就可以扩大规模。碳信用是数字货币的完美候选，因为它们是数据驱动的，依赖于多个批准步骤，并与它们相关的物理影响分开存在。
Imagine a world in which carbon emissions and credits can be tracked transparently and reliably. Retailers will be able to sell a product and take into account the carbon impact it creates at the same time. Governments will be able to measure, track and trade emissions transparently. And crucially, for the first time consumers will be able to understand the environmental impact of the products they are buying – both positive and negative – at the point of sale, and will be able to mitigate this in an instant, with millions of micro-transactions scaling up to make a huge collective impact.
Momentum is building towards natural solutions to climate change, and not a moment too soon. Pressure on businesses from consumers to improve the sustainability of their supply chains and their products will soon be matched by regulatory pressures and quotas if we are to stand any chance of reversing the climate damage that is a reality today.
It is not an overstatement to say that we all need to take responsibility for the carbon consequences of every choice we make. What is exciting is that by creating a global, trusted and accessible carbon currency, with the help of new digital technologies available to us, we are on the cusp of being able to do so.
月月：What can XELS tokens used for (application)?
Mitchell Hammer：Building a Better Market. One of the promises of blockchain technology is that it can bring efficiencies and access to virtually every market. XELS will promise to try to build a better carbon trading market.
Our objective: To bring efficiencies to developing, managing, and trading carbon credits, with the ultimate goal of reducing carbon emissions. By doing so on a public blockchain, they combat the issues of corruption and lack of transparency.
我们的目标 : 提高碳信用的开发、管理和交易效率，最终目标是减少碳排放。通过在公共区块链上这样做，解决了腐败和缺乏透明度的问题。
The ability to create immutable transactions on blockchain helps ensure that the data is traceable, transparent and visible in real time to all stakeholders. The entire carbon trading process becomes more shareable as well, which naturally streamlines it.
The results: Reduced time-to-market for carbon assets (projects with a more significant reduction in emissions), reduced cost, greater transparency, and better security. Participants can easily track their carbon footprint and better understand when to buy or sell in the carbon asset market. And regulators can more easily monitor progress against quotas to ensure that participants meet carbon reduction goals.
结果是 : 碳资产的上市时间缩短 (减排更显著的项目)，成本降低，透明度更高，安全性更好。参与者可以轻松跟踪他们的碳足迹，并更好地了解何时在碳资产市场购买或出售。监管机构可以更容易地根据配额监控进展，以确保参与者达到碳减排目标。
Now, I don't want you to get the impression that the blockchain is the solution to everything, even though the media has said that it's going to end world poverty, it's also going to solve the counterfeit drug problem and potentially save the rainforest. The truth is, this technology is in its infancy, and we're going to need to see a lot of experiments take place and probably fail before we truly understand all of the use cases for our economy. But there are tons of people working on this, from financial institutions to technology companies, start-ups and universities. And one of the reasons is that it's not just an economic evolution. It's also an innovation in computer science.
现在，我不想让你有这样的印象 : 区块链是解决一切问题的方法，尽管媒体说它将结束世界贫困，它也将解决假药问题，并有可能拯救雨林。事实是，这项技术还处于起步阶段，在我们真正理解我们经济的所有用例之前，我们需要看到许多实验发生，并且可能失败。但有成千上万的人在从事这项工作，从金融机构到科技公司、初创企业和大学。其中一个原因是，这不仅仅是一种经济进化。这也是计算机科学的一项创新。
Blockchains give us the technological capability of creating a record of human exchange, of exchange of currency, of all kinds of digital and physical assets, even of our own personal attributes, in a totally new way. So in some ways, they become a technological institution that has a lot of the benefits of the traditional institutions we're used to using in society, but it does this in a decentralized way. It does this by converting a lot of our uncertainties into certainties.
So I think we need to start preparing ourselves, because we are about to face a world where distributed, autonomous institutions have quite a significant role.
XELS applies traditional commodity exchange architecture to carbon credits. Traditional commodities trade digital receipts representing commodities held in a warehouse. These warehouses are organized around predefined specs.
Similarly, we currently securitize carbon credits into tradable carbon asset classes. We organize credits around the markets they serve. Carbon credits held by the exchange are held in a Trust. For every credit deposited into the Trust, a corresponding amount of Tokens resides on the Exchange.
Our platform is unique in many ways. With it, we can transact small amounts of carbon credits, for the first time, allowing us to integrate the carbon market with the retail sector. Our platform is truly end-to-end, connecting polluters and consumers around the world.
Using our blockchain-based platform, carbon credits will be managed throughout their entire lifecycle. It will offer transparency, traceability, and monitoring at every step. While it will of course sit alongside the structural improvements that businesses are making to lower their emissions, it offers the critical acceleration in activity and funding for emission reduction projects, driving the changes necessary for sustainable global development.
B2C – Retail integration
Our immediate focus is the integration of the Xels platform with retailers around the world,
as this is the fastest moving and most scalable market. When a consumer buys a product like a shoe at a retailer, our platform can calculate its carbon footprint. When the payment is made, an offset with 22kg of carbon credits, representing 110% of the emissions, is used to make the purchase climate positive. The user experience is seamless and shortly after the purchase a notification is sent to the optional mobile app, if the user chooses to register for this service
我们目前的重点是 Xels 平台与世界各地零售商的整合，因为这是发展最快、规模最大的市场。
当消费者在零售商购买鞋子等产品时，我们的平台可以计算其碳足迹。当付款时，22 公斤的碳信用额度 (相当于排放量的 110%) 将被用来抵消，以使购买环境变得积极。用户体验是无缝的，如果用户选择注册这项服务，购买后不久就会向可选的移动应用程序发送通知
B2B / B2G – Corporations / Governments - offsetting their emissions
B2B/B2G-公司 / 政府-抵消他们的排放
A logical second target market is made up of corporate and government entities who want to offset their own carbon emissions, as for example to satisfy the legal obligations under Article 6 of the UNFCCC Paris Agreement. When a corporation or government decides to offset its carbon emissions using the Xels platform, our Footprint engine calculates the carbon footprint and selects the best carbon credits using an array of criteria. Once a transaction is made, a certificate is issued as verification for the offset.
符合逻辑的第二个目标市场由希望抵消自身碳排放的企业和政府实体组成，例如，为了履行《气候公约巴黎协定》第六条规定的法律义务。当一家公司或政府决定使用 Xels 平台抵消其碳排放时，我们的足迹引擎会计算碳足迹，并使用一系列标准选择最佳碳信用。交易完成后，会签发一份证书作为抵销的验证。
B2C / B2B – Traders
The fourth target market is crucial for the token economics, as the arbitrage opportunity provided by the trading of carbon credits on the xels platform by large corporations will ensure that the value on secondary markets will stay above the carbon rate, the exchange rate we fix internally at Xels against the global carbon market value.
第四个目标市场对代币经济至关重要，因为大型企业在 xels 平台上交易碳信用提供的套利机会将确保二级市场的价值保持在碳汇率之上，即我们内部确定的 Xels 对全球碳市场价值的汇率。
A trader can quickly and conveniently trade carbon credits on the platform by converting
Tokens. Each token represents part of a carbon credit. It is possible to select the emission reductions project the carbon credit originated from and using the blockchain integration, a trader can view all of its lifecycle details. tokens can either be allocated to a trader’s account on the platform or the underlying carbon credit delivered to a trader’s registry account outside Xels. The trader has full ownership of tokens and which he can trade with other participants on secondary markets. In most cases, a trader is ultimately selling the purchased carbon credits to a corporate or government entity that wants to use them to offset their carbon emissions, as for example to satisfy requirements under Article 6 of the UNFCCC Paris Agreement.
交易者可以通过转换在平台上快速方便地交易碳信用代币。每个代币代表碳信用的一部分。可以选择碳信用来源的减排项目，并使用区块链集成，交易者可以查看其生命周期的所有细节。代币可以分配给平台上的交易者账户，也可以将基础碳信用额交付给 Xels 以外的交易者注册账户。交易者拥有代币的全部所有权，他可以在二级市场上与其他参与者进行交易。在大多数情况下，贸易商最终将购买的碳信用额出售给公司或政府实体，公司或政府实体希望使用这些信用额来抵消其碳排放，例如满足《气候公约巴黎协定》第六条的要求。
月月：Specific plans of XELS project in 2021.
XELS 2021 年有什么规划？
Takeshi Nojima：Further, we identify key challenges to implementation of a blockchain ETS, as well as areas of future work required to enable a fully-decentralised blockchain ETS. On top of launching this Carbon trade platform we are looking to extend this to developing a platform for personal carbon rationing.
Carbon rationing, as a means of reducing CO2 emissions to contain climate change, could take any of several forms. One of them, personal carbon trading, is the generic term for a number of proposed emissions trading schemes under which emissions credits would be allocated to adult inpiduals on a (broadly) equal per capita basis, within national carbon budgets. Inpiduals then surrender these credits when buying fuel or electricity. Inpiduals wanting or needing to emit at a level above that permitted by their initial allocation would be able to purchase additional credits from those using less, creating a profit for those inpiduals who emit at a level below that permitted by their initial allocation.
碳配给，作为减少二氧化碳排放以遏制气候变化的一种手段，可以采取几种形式中的任何一种。其中之一，个人碳交易，是许多拟议的排放交易计划的通称，根据这些计划，在国家碳预算内，排放信用将在 (大致) 人均基础上分配给成年人。个人然后在购买燃料或电力时交出这些信用。想要或需要排放水平高于其初始分配所允许的水平的个人将能够从使用较少的人那里购买额外的信用，为那些排放水平低于其初始分配所允许的水平的个人创造利润。
XELS Ltd 成立于 2018 年，目标是通过致力于缓解气候变化，同时提供鼓励社会朝着更可持续的未来发展的解决方案，对全球环境产生积极影响。
XELS 的愿景是打造一个以用户为中心的区块链生态系统，在此生态系统中，数据，资金和信息可以无缝，安全地共享。XELS 正在建立一个由区块链基础设施和通用数字资产支持的环保公司生态系统，这将增强所有人在应对全球变暖方面的能力。
XELS 项目的第一阶段可以说是这三个阶段中最关键的阶段，它将引入核心价值主张，该价值主张允许通过我们的 XELS 交易所和合作伙伴交易所购买和分发 XELS 代币。
第一阶段的目标是提供最大量的流动资金，以提供给我们的初始投资者。通过具有以折扣价买卖 Elesol 产品和服务的代币，或将其交换为其他数字货币或法定货币的能力，投资者可以在需要时立即呼吁流动性，这是 XELS 团队想要提供的关键价值主张。