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    1. 链安访谈50期丨打破不可能三角,Radix为DeFi打造全新Layer1平台

      wanglin
      2021-03-19 11:20:35
        链安财经有幸邀请到了Radix CEO Piers Ridyard为大家带来关于“打破不可能三角,Radix为DeFi打造全新Layer1平台”的主题分享!  

      2020年下半年,DEFI就以火爆的态势席卷币圈,锁仓金额也已经突破530亿美元,然而,去中心化应用的底层协议具有不适用性,gas费用过高、网络堵塞、黑客攻击等问题也限制了DEFI的进一步发展,而Radix分片扩容的网络的设计,为解决这一问题提供了很好的方式,而Radix又将如何去实现这一可能性呢? 今天,链安财经有幸邀请到了Radix CEO Piers Ridyard为大家带来关于“打破不可能三角,Radix为DeFi打造全新Layer1平台”的主题分享!

      主持人: 部分新朋友对于Radix还不是特别了解,能否先请Piers给我们介绍下Radix项目以及其诞生由来?
      Some new friends don’t know much about Radix. Can you please tell us about the Radix project and its origin?
      嘉宾:Radix is the Smart Money Protocol, a next generation layer 1 platform that does not have the limitations of current layer 1 platforms. Radix has demonstrated 1.4 million TPS in 2018. This is the world record still today. Our new consensus algorithm ‘Cerberus’ is able to theoretically scale infinitely. We will deliver this capability in 3 steps: from 50 TPS to thousands of TPS, to unlimited TPS. We have a strong team with backgrounds at ConsenSys, Microsoft, Nvidia and Y-Combinator who are experienced in delivering complex products. All of our last milestones were delivering ahead of time.
      Radix是Smart Money协议,它是下一代layer-1,没有当前layer-1的限制。 Radix在2018年已展示了140万TPS,这仍是目前为止最高纪录。我们新的共识算法“ Cerberus”在理论上可以无限扩展。将分3个步骤提供此功能:从50 TPS到数千TPS,再到无限TPS。我们拥有一支由ConsenSys,Microsoft,Nvidia和Y-Combinator组成的强大团队,他们在实现复杂产品方面经验丰富,目前为止我们的计划都超前完成了。

      A big focus for us are developers. With Radix, developers can build fast without the massive security and exploit risks on Ethereum. Some information around this is already public, such as the Component Catalogue and Blueprints. We are excited to share more information soon. Also we think that we are incentivizing the right people in our network, the developers for creating valuable components and the validators for securing the network. Scalability is important of course, on Radix dApps can scale to millions of users without friction because we don’t have a built-in TPS limit thanks to our innovative technology.
      对我们而言,重点是开发人员。借助Radix,开发人员可以快速构建而不需要大量的安全性,并且可以利用以太坊的风险。有关此的一些信息已经公开,例如“组件目录”和“蓝图”。我们很高兴能尽快分享更多信息。我们还认为,我们正在激励网络中的合适人员,开发人员来创建有价值的组件以及验证器以保护网络安全。可扩展性当然很重要,因为在Radix dApp上,我们的创新技术使我们没有内置的TPS限制,因此Radix dApp可以无数次地扩展到数百万个用户。

      At Radix we have big goals, we want to fundamentally change the current financial system, because we think it is not a fair system. It is time to build a new financial system and Radix wants to be the platform on which the new decentralized financial system is built. To help with this, Radix has founded the GoodFi Alliance (GoodFi.com). The goal is to bundle the industry’s resources to educate and onboard the next 100 million people from the traditional financial system to DeFi. Many big players have joined us, like Aave, Chainlink, mStable and dozens of others. We are very thankful and are confidently looking into the future. We have 3 major milestones coming up with our Cassandra research network, our Betanet at the end of April and our mainnet by end of Q2. Exciting times at Radix!
      在Radix,我们有远大的目标,我们希望从根本上改变当前的财务系统,因为我们认为这不是一个公平的系统。现在是构建新的财务系统的时候了,Radix希望成为构建新的去中心化财务系统的平台。为了解决这个问题,Radix建立了GoodFi联盟(GoodFi.com)。目标是将行业资源捆绑在一起,以教育和培训从传统金融系统到DeFi的下1亿人。许多大公司加入了我们,例如Aave,Chainlink,mStable和其他数十家公司。我们非常感谢,并充满信心地展望未来。我们的Cassandra研究网络,4月底的Betanet和第二季度末的主网将为我们带来3个主要的里程碑。

      主持人:“实现全球可拓展性,同时保持安全性、去中心化”,被誉为区块链的不可能三角,Radix声称解决了这一难题,并且还可以维持整个平台的可组合性,请问Radix是如何做到的?
      (“Achieving global scalability while maintaining security and decentralization" is known as the impossible triangle of the blockchain. Radix claims to solve this problem and maintain the composability of the entire platform. How to do it?)
      嘉宾:To achieve (practically) unlimited scalability Radix employs sharding of their network with 2^256 shards, which is roughly comparable to the total number of atoms in the known universe. Each of these 2^256 shards can process around 3000 TPS independently.
      为了实现(实际上)无限的可扩展性,Radix使用2 ^ 256个分片对其网络进行分片,这与已知宇宙中的原子总数大致相当。 这些2 ^ 256个碎片中的每个碎片可以独立处理大约3000 TPS。
      Due to the large amount of shards nearly all transactions are cross-shard transactions by default.
      由于分片数量众多,默认情况下几乎所有事务都是跨分片事务。

      Radix’s cross-shard consensus algorithm Cerberus ensures atomic composability for these transactions across the entire plattform. Cerberus is highly parallelized, atomic and asynchronous which enables fast and atomic cross-shard transactions at global scale.
      Radix的跨分片共识算法Cerberus确保整个平台上这些交易的原子可组合性。 Cerberus是高度并行化的,原子的和异步的,可在全球范围内实现快速和原子的跨碎片事务。

      Cerberus dynamically braids the involved shards of a cross-shard transaction together and the whole transaction either succeeds or fails together in an atomic way.
      Cerberus动态地将交叉分片事务中涉及的分片编织在一起,并且整个事务以原子方式一起成功或失败。

      主持人:Radix定位于构建去中心化金融的Layer 1平台,那么和市面上其他的Layer 1平台比如Near相比,同为主打分片扩容技术,Radix有什么区别、优势?
      (Radix is positioned to build a Layer 1 platform for decentralized finance. Compared with other Layer 1 platforms on the market such as Near, what are the differences and advantages of Radix with the main sharding expansion technology?)
      嘉宾:The unique advantage of Radix’s sharding approach is that it is the only one which does not break atomic composability while achieving linear scalability. All other competing sharded layer 1 platforms sacrifice composability to get some scalability via sharding, which is not sustainable.
      Radix分片方法的独特优势在于,它是唯一在实现线性可扩展性的同时不会破坏原子可组合性的方法。所有其他竞争分片的第1层平台都牺牲了可组合性,以通过分片获得一些可扩展性,这是不可持续的。

      Near’s scalability is limited because it requires too many nodes (1 million nodes are needed for only total 10K TPS) and also breaks atomic composability.
      Near的可扩展性受到限制,因为它需要太多的节点(总共10K TPS需要100万个节点),而且破坏了原子的可组合性。

      Polkadot introduces sharding with parachains, but breaks atomic composability between parachains/shards, because a smart contract can only send messages to another parachain and Polkadot doesn’t support the concept of atomic cross-shard transactions.
      Polkadot引入了使用平行链的分片功能,但打破了平行链/分片之间的原子可组合性,因为只能将消息发送到另一个平行链,而Polkadot不支持原子交叉分片交易的概念。

      Elrond has shards, but their metachain will become a bottleneck in the future, because every cross-shard transaction needs to be initialised and finalised on their metachain and also Elrond does not support atomic composability across shards.
      Elrond有分片,但他们的元链将成为未来的瓶颈,因为每个跨分片交易都需要在其元链上初始化和完成,而且Elrond不支持跨分片的原子可组合性。

      Cosmos has shards, but dapps are separated on side-chains which breaks atomic composability between them.
      Cosmos有碎片,但是dapps在侧链上分开,这破坏了它们之间的原子可组合性。

      Ethereum 2.0 canceled their layer 1 sharding efforts (or delayed it far away in the future) and are going for layer 2 scaling now. This means smart contracts will not be able to be executed in their layer 1 and their layer 2 scaling approach sacrifices atomic composability.
      以太坊2.0取消了他们的第1层分片工作(或将其推迟到很远的将来),现在打算进行第2层扩展。这意味着智能合约将无法在其第1层中执行,并且其第2层缩放方法会牺牲原子的可组合性。

      Avalanche, Cardano, Fantom, Solana, Algorand and Ethereum 2.0 are not sharded in the first place and therefore will run into bottlenecks sooner or later.
      Avalanche,Cardano,Fantom,Solana,Algorand和以太坊2.0最初并未被分片,因此迟早会遇到瓶颈。

      Without sharding there is an upper limit for the transactions per second, because every single node needs to process every transaction at least once and additionally there are storage issues, since the ledger state grows over time to a point where you either can’t handle it anymore on a single node or you need a supercomputer which leads to centralisation.
      如果不进行分片,则每秒的交易量会有上限,因为每个单独的节点都需要至少处理一次每个交易,此外还会存在存储问题,因为分类帐状态会随着时间增长到无法处理的程度不再需要在单个节点上运行,或者您需要一台可实现集中化的超级计算机。

      主持人:如何使以太坊上的defi dapp迁移到Radix网络?
      How does Radix make the defi dapp on Ethereum migrate to the Radix network?
      嘉宾:Gas costs are killing the usability of the Ethereum ledger. Solidity is a nightmare for DeFi developers. Right now, most of the Ethereum ecosystem is actively looking for ways to mitigate the scalability issues, and every single project is constantly trying to mitigate the security issues of solidity. Layer 2s break the composability that is so critical to DeFi, and projects like Polkadot, Avalanche and Ethereum 2.0 do no better on this front.
      交易成本正在扼杀以太坊账本的可用性。 Solidity是DeFi开发人员的噩梦。 目前,大多数以太坊生态系统都在积极寻求缓解可扩展性问题的方法,并且每个项目都在不断地尝试缓解稳定性的安全性问题。 第2层打破了对DeFi至关重要的可组合性,而Polkadot,Avalanche和Ethereum 2.0等项目在这方面并没有做得更好。

      To ease the transition from Solidity to Scrypto, one of our partners, Noether, is creating a system that allows people to migrate their Solidity code across to the Radix network: https://www.radixdlt.com/post/object-computing-and-noether-dlt-develop-ethereum-based-smart-contract-platform-for-the-radix-ledger/
      为了简化从Solidity到Scrypto的过渡,我们的合作伙伴之一Noether正在创建一个系统,该系统使人们可以将其Solidity代码跨迁移到Radix网络https://www.radixdlt.com/post/object-computing-and-noether-dlt-develop-ethereum-based-smart-contract-platform-for-the-radix-ledger/

      In addition to this, Radix recently launched the GoodFi initiative with some of the leaders in the DeFi space to help bring 100m users into DeFi by 2025: https://www.radixdlt.com/post/radix-launches-goodfi-alliance-with-chainlink-aave-messari-mstable-more/
      除此之外,Radix最近还与DeFi领域的一些领导者发起了GoodFi计划,以帮助到2025年将1亿用户带入DeFi:https://www.radixdlt.com/post/radix-launches-goodfi-alliance-with-chainlink-aave-messari-mstable-more/

      主持人: Radix提出了一种新的共识算法Cerberus,相较于其他算法有什么优异之处?该算法能否应用到以太坊、波卡网络中?
      Radix proposed a new consensus algorithm Cerberus. Compared with other algorithms, what are the advantages? Can this algorithm be applied to Ethereum and Polkadot networks?

      嘉宾:Cerberus allows linear scalability without breaking atomic composability. This means to scale the network you simply add nodes, but do not break the magic ability to call many DeFi smart contracts simultaneously for things like flash loans and arbitrage trades. These are the sophisticated financial transactions that drive huge amounts of liquidity in DeFi and mean that DeFi is now competing directly with centralised exchanges like Binance.
      Cerberus允许线性可伸缩性而不会破坏原子的可组合性。这意味着仅需添加节点即可扩展网络,但不会破坏同时调用许多DeFi智能合约以处理诸如快速借贷和套利交易之类的功能。这些复杂的金融交易推动了DeFi的大量流动性,这意味着DeFi现在正在直接与像Binance这样的集中式交易所竞争。

      Fundamentally Ethereum 2.0 and Polkadot break these very important characteristics.
      从根本上来说,以太坊2.0和Polkadot打破了这些非常重要的特征。

      Cerberus does not because it is not a blockchain, it is not a directed acyclic graph (DAG) - it is a fundamentally new form of consensus protocol and data structure that has taken eight years to research and develop. Cerberus allows Radix to scale just like TCP/IP. As more nodes are added to the network, Radix can process more transactions - scaling linearly without any limit, without breaking atomic composability - which means that transactions either settle all together - or not at all.
      Cerberus并不是因为它不是区块链,而是有向无环图(DAG),从根本上来说是一种新的共识协议和数据结构形式,需要花费八年的时间进行研究和开发。 Cerberus允许Radix像TCP / IP一样进行扩展。随着更多节点被添加到网络中,Radix可以处理更多事务-线性扩展而没有任何限制,而不会破坏原子的可组合性-这意味着事务要么全部结算,要么根本不结算。

      No blockchain solution presently has this feature - which includes Ethereum and Polkadot.
      当前没有区块链解决方案具有此功能-包括以太坊和Polkadot。

      It will not be possible to run Cerberus on the Ethereum or Polkadot networks - the way they have been built is so fundamentally different to how we have built Radix from the data structure all the way through to the execution environment.
      Cerberus不可能在以太坊或Polkadot网络上运行-它们的构建方式与我们从数据结构一直到执行环境的Radix的构建方式根本不同。

      主持人: 对于目前DEFI的趋势怎么看?Radix又将有怎样的市场规划去获取更多用户?
      What do you think of the current trend of DEFI? What market plan does Radix have to acquire more users?
      嘉宾:DeFi is growing quickly. The total value locked (TVL) in DeFi has grown from less than $1 billion in February 2020, to over $40 billion by February 2021. We expect DeFi to continue growing exponentially as it offers better yield and accessibility to financial products than traditional finance. We’re also really excited by new features in DeFi that are not possible in traditional finance - such as flash loans. The pace of innovation is truly breathtaking.
      DeFi发展迅速。 DeFi的总锁定价值(TVL)已从2020年2月的不到10亿美元增长到2021年2月的400亿美元。我们预计DeFi将继续以指数级的速度增长,因为它提供的收益和金融产品的可及性都比传统金融更好。 我们也对DeFi的新功能感到非常激动,这些功能在传统金融中是无法实现的,例如快速贷款。 创新的步伐确实令人叹为观止。

      Our growth strategy is comprised of three elements:
      ● provide developers the tools to build fast without breaking things - enabled by Radix Engine v2 and Scrypto
      ● reward and incentivise developers to build the best and safest DeFi primitives and dApps - enabled by component catalog and developer royalties
      ● allow DeFi to scale in as friction-free a way as possible - enabled by Cerberus.
      我们的增长战略包括三个要素:
      ●由Radix Engine v2和Scrypto支持,为开发人员提供了快速构建而不会破坏其他的工具
      ●奖励并激励开发人员构建最佳和最安全的DeFi原语和dApp-由组件目录和开发人员使用费实现
      ●允许DeFi尽可能以无摩擦的方式缩放-由Cerberus启用。

      We think these three features make Radix uniquely positioned to propel DeFi into the mainstream. Fundamentally this space is still about making it easy to innovate - it is only through this innovation will we discover the applications that will properly break through to the mainstream.
      我们认为这三个功能使Radix具有独特的定位,可以推动DeFi成为主流。 从根本上讲,这个空间仍然是使创新变得容易的方法-只有通过这种创新,我们才能发现能够正确突破主流的应用程序。

      主持人:对于目前日益火爆的DEFI产品,Piers认为DEFI领域是否已经饱和,还是依旧存在很多机会?
      For the current increasingly popular DEFI products, do you believe that the DEFI field is saturated, or there are still many opportunities?
      嘉宾:DeFi is absolutely not saturated - it is still in its infancy. Compared to the existing financial system, DeFi is tiny. We think DeFi is at the very beginning of a virtuous cycle of becoming more accessible and adopted, which in turn attracts liquidity and investment, which finances innovation, and ultimately provides greater financial choice to individuals and organisations.
      目前DeFi并不饱和且仍处于起步阶段。 与现有的财务系统相比,DeFi的涉及范围还很窄。 我们认为,DeFi正处于一个更容易获得和采用的良性循环的开始,这反过来又吸引了流动性和投资,为创新提供了资金,并最终为个人和组织提供了更多的财务选择。

      主持人:Radix网络被分解成许多碎片,在这样的分布式数据库里,怎样实现一致性呢?
      The Radix network is broken down into many shards. How to achieve consistency in such a distributed database?
      嘉宾:Data read/writes in the Radix network are deterministic - meaning that a transaction and data always maps directly to a specific address in the shard space. Equally, the mapping of nodes to shards is deterministic, meaning that given a transaction you are always able to tell both where it is going to live in the shard space, and which validators are servicing that shard space.
      Radix网络中的数据读/写是确定性的-意味着事务和数据始终直接映射到分片空间中的特定地址。 同样,节点到分片的映射是确定性的,这意味着在给定事务的情况下,您始终能够知道分片空间中将要驻留的位置以及为该分片空间提供服务的验证程序。

      Lastly, writes are only committed once true finality has been achieved - this is true BFT consensus, meaning that only once a threshold is reached can a write be committed. As the network prefers safety over liveness, the consistency of the ledger is always maintained.
      最后,只有在达到真正的确定性之后才提交写入操作-这是真正的BFT共识,这意味着只有达到阈值后才可以提交写入操作。 由于网络优先考虑安全性而不是活动性,因此总账本的一致性始终保持不变。

      感谢以下媒体支持

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